An Approach To Jazz Harmony
Learn to incorporate chromaticism (using notes outside the stated tonality to enhance a phrase) into your playing with this straight-forward, easy to understand approach that allows you to personalize as well as to modernize your existing jazz material. This book should be seen as a method to help the artist to develop his or her own way when trying to improvise chromatically. Through the concepts and examples offered, the improvisor should be able to use this material alongside already familiar tonal ideas. Specifically, the book serves as a guide for organizing chromaticism into a coherent musical statement meant to satisfy both the intellectual and emotional needs of artistic creation.The reader will be introduced to more than one way of conceiving chromatic lines and harmonies. There is nothing theoretically complex or new in the text, it is the organization of the material as well as many musical examples and transcriptions (Bach, Scriabin, Coltrane, Shorter, Hancock, Beirach, Liebman a.o.) which should serve to inspire musicians to expand their usual diatonic vocabulary. This book also provides insight into the style of playing that David Liebman is known for. In addition the book contains 100 assorted solo lines and 100 chord voicings. Includes online demo tracks to showcase concepts discussed in the book David Liebman: soprano saxophone, Phil Markowitz: piano, Vic Juris and Bob Reich: guitar. It includes verbal explanations, demonstrations from the book, play-along tracks, plus several listening tracks for your enjoyment. Each track is like a private lesson from master teacher David Liebman. Includes:Example 1Example 2Example 3
An Approach to Jazz Harmony
Starting from the most basic harmonic situations and progressing to contemporary jazz harmony, this book shows how to uncover the best choices for chords to accompany any melody. The Jazz Harmony Book is a serious study of the fundamentals of jazz harmony. A must for the serious jazz player, composer and arranger!
NOTE: The supllier is temporarily out of this title. We are taking backorders and hope to ship in mid April, 2023.Jazz harmony, as taught at the Berklee College of Music is based on the so called Chord Scale Theory. This method - further developed - is now available as a comprehensive textbook for the first time. Emerged from practice and designed for practical use, it provides theoretical knowledge necessary for improvisation, composing, and arranging.
Jazz harmony is the theory and practice of how chords are used in jazz music. Jazz bears certain similarities to other practices in the tradition of Western harmony, such as many chord progressions, and the incorporation of the major and minor scales as a basis for chordal construction. In jazz, chords are often arranged vertically in major or minor thirds, although stacked fourths are also quite common. Also, jazz music tends to favor certain harmonic progressions and includes the addition of tensions, intervals such as 9ths, 11ths, and 13ths to chords. Additionally, scales unique to style are used as the basis of many harmonic elements found in jazz. Jazz harmony is notable for the use of seventh chords as the basic harmonic unit more often than triads, as in classical music. In the words of Robert Rawlins and Nor Eddine Bahha, "7th chords provide the building blocks of jazz harmony."
The piano and guitar are the two instruments that typically provide harmony for a jazz group. Players of these instruments deal with harmony in a real-time, flowing improvisational context as a matter of course. This is one of the greatest challenges in jazz.
In a big-band context, the harmony is the basis for horn material, melodic counterpoint, and so on. The improvising soloist is expected to have a complete knowledge of the basics of harmony, as well as their own unique approach to chords and their relationship to scales. A personal style is composed of these building blocks and a rhythmic concept.
Jazz composers use harmony as a basic stylistic element as well. Open, modal harmony is characteristic of the music of McCoy Tyner, whereas rapidly shifting key centers is a hallmark of the middle period of John Coltrane's writing. Horace Silver, Clare Fischer, Dave Brubeck, and Bill Evans are pianists whose compositions are more typical of the chord-rich style associated with pianist-composers. Joe Henderson, Woody Shaw, Wayne Shorter and Benny Golson are non-pianists who also have a strong sense of the role of harmony in compositional structure and mood. These composers (including also Dizzy Gillespie and Charles Mingus, who recorded infrequently as pianists) have musicianship grounded in chords at the piano, even though they are not performing keyboardists.
The authentic cadence (V-I) is the most important one in both classical and jazz harmony, though in jazz it more often follows a ii or II chord serving as predominant. To cite Rawlins and Bahha, as above: "The ii-V-I [progression] provides the cornerstone of jazz harmony"
Other central features of jazz harmony are diatonic and non-diatonic reharmonizations, the addition of the V7(sus4) chord as a dominant and non-dominant functioning chord, major/minor interchange, blues harmony, secondary dominants, extended dominants, deceptive resolution, related ii-V7 chords, direct modulations, the use of contrafacts, common chord modulations, and dominant chord modulations using ii-V progressions.
Analytic practice in Jazz recognizes four basic chord types, plus diminished seventh chords. The four basic chord types are major, minor, minor-major, and dominant. When written in a jazz chart, these chords may have alterations specified in parentheses after the chord symbol. An altered note is a note which is a deviation from the canonical chord tone.
There is variety in the chord symbols used in jazz notation. A jazz musician must have facility in the alternate notation styles which are used. The following chord symbol examples use C as a root tone for example purposes.
The jazz chord naming system is as deterministic as the composer wishes it to be. A rule of thumb is that chord alterations are included in a chart only when the alteration appears in the melody or is crucial to essence of the composition. Skilled improvisers are able to supply an idiomatic, highly altered harmonic vocabulary even when written chord symbols contain no alterations.
Much of jazz harmony is based on the melodic minor scale (using only the "ascending" scale as defined in classical harmony). The modes of this scale are the basis for much jazz improvisation and are variously named as below, using the key of C-minor as an example:
Jazz is used in its widest sense throughout the guide to include its myriad sub genres and its historic development from traditional (trad) jazz through modern jazz to free jazz and on to contemporary jazz.
There is a small body of jazz harmony theory. It is an eclectic mix of functional harmony, pop harmony, modal harmony, pentatonic harmony and quartal harmony with a few new bits of its own thrown in for good measure.
Improvisation is one area in which jazz harmony is said to differ from other approaches to harmony. Composition in jazz harmony is as much a performance issue as it is a writing issue. Jazz harmony can be written in detail but it can also have a much looser framework. All that is needed is a chord progression, and maybe a short melody as well, and the details can be worked out later during actual performance when the musicians and singers improvise variants on the basic melodic and harmonic framework. This is a boon to jazz writers because it means that a jazz piece can be quickly sketched out in lead sheet format.
This theme of improvisation is evident in jazz harmonisation and melodisation, the processes of adding a new harmony or melody to an old jazz standard. The Great American Songbook is a good source of material for jazz standards.
Improvisation and harmonisation are important features of jazz harmony. They are not, though, exclusive to jazz, they also feature in pop. Many a pop song consists of just a lead sheet, performers of pop music regularly improvise, and many pop songs are reharmonised oldies but goldies.
The guide focusses instead on those aspects of jazz harmony that distinguish it from pop harmony and functional harmony and all the other approaches to harmony. Two features in particular are deemed important:
Dissonance is tackled first. Jazz harmony embraces dissonance to a much greater extent than functional and pop harmony. Dissonance is, in many ways, THE feature of jazz harmony. It gives jazz music its distinctive sound. This is evident in the use of the seventh chord. The seventh chord is a dissonant chord and it is the chord of choice in jazz harmony rather than the consonant triad used in functional harmony and much of pop harmony. Jazz voicing uses complete and incomplete seventh chords to form a jazz progression which is often based on the extensive use of secondary dominant chords. A seventh chord can be extended to make it even bigger and more dissonant until all the notes in a scale have been used up.
At the same time as jazz harmony becomes more dissonant it also becomes more atonal. It starts innocuously enough with chord substitution, the process of replacing one chord by another. Tonality hits the spotlight in modal jazz which develops modal harmony into a system in which a chord can span multiple modes. The chord scale system extends the idea beyond modes and enables a chord to span multiple scales. Finally, an altered chord is a chromatic chord that can simultaneously fit more than one key, at which point, jazz harmony morphs into chromatic harmony.
David Berkman is one of the top pianists on the NY jazz scene today, with seven records released under his name, and having performed with countless major jazz figures, including: Sonny Stitt, Brian Blade, Chris Potter, Joe Lovano, Billy Hart, Eddie Henderson, Lenny White, Bill Stewart, Hank Crawford and Dave Douglas. David is also an in-demand jazz educator on three continents, the author of two previous Sher Music Co. music books, and associate professor of music at Queens College in New York. 041b061a72