The marks are interpreted as feeding traces and these fossils therefore record instances of cannibalism. Given that this behavior has a low preservation potential, cannibalism seems to have been a surprisingly common behavior in Tyrannosaurus, and this behavior may have been relatively common in carnivorous dinosaurs.
During recent museum studies of Maastrichtian dinosaurs, one of us (NRL) encountered a large theropod pedal phalanx (UCMP 137538) bearing tooth marks made by a large carnivorous dinosaur. Because Tyrannosaurus is the only large carnivore known from the late Maastrichtian of North America , the tooth marks and the phalanx can both be attributed to Tyrannosaurus. Subsequently, more dinosaur specimens have been found to bear Tyrannosaurus tooth marks, of which three are from Tyrannosaurus (Table 1). We show that these specimens provide direct evidence of cannibalism in Tyrannosaurus.
Four examples of cannibalism are known from a relatively limited sample of tooth-marked bones. Given this, cannibalism must have been common in Tyrannosaurus. If anything, the frequency of cannibalism is easily underestimated, for several reasons. First, the act of feeding on a carcass tends to destroy the evidence, because bones may be ingested, broken up, or dragged off and left to weather away out in the open. Second, cannibalism can only be observed on a carcass where the animals leave tooth marks; where Tyrannosaurus fed around the bones, such events would not be recognized. Third, many Tyrannosaurus skeletons are mounted, preventing detailed examination of the bones for tooth marks. Fourth, although we examined as many bones in as many museums as possible, it was not possible to examine all specimens of Tyrannosaurus in all museums. Given this, it is perhaps surprising to find even a single instance of cannibalism, let alone multiple examples.
Recent studies have questioned whether cannibalism was widespread in dinosaurs , but the traces described here show that Tyrannosaurus was indisputably a cannibal. The only other dinosaur known to have engaged in cannibalism is the abelisaurid Majungatholus , however theropod tooth marks also occur on tyrannosaurid bones from the Dinosaur Park Formation , . Because two tyrannosaurids- Gorgosaurus and Daspletosaurus- occur here, it is impossible to definitively state that these traces represent cannibalism . However, because Gorgosaurus outnumbers Daspletosaurus by three-to-one in this environment , most of the bones and feeding traces probably represent Gorgosaurus and therefore it is probable that at least some of these traces represent cannibalism.
Cannibalism is common in nature , particularly among large carnivores, including bears , , , hyenas , large felids , , Komodo dragons , and crocodylians , . Notably, most documented cases of cannibalism in large carnivores involve predation, rather than scavenging. Cannibalism is especially common in the American alligator, and may account for more than half of the juvenile mortality each year . Given that cannibalism is known in Tyrannosaurus, Majungatholus and many extant, large-bodied carnivores, this behavior is likely to have been widespread in large, carnivorous dinosaurs.
intro: On May 26, Miami police shot and killed a homeless man who was allegedly feasting on the face of another homeless man in a daylight attack on a busy highway. Before now-infamous \"face-eating cannibal\" Randy Eugene was stopped by four police bullets, say authorities, he had gnawed the face of victim Ronald Poppo down to his goatee. \"The forehead was just bone,\" said a witness. \"No nose, no mouth.\" Police said that Eugene, 31, who had ripped off his clothes and refused police orders to stop eating Poppo's flesh, showed behavior consistent with ingesting the synthetic cocaine substitute known as bath salts. Bath salts have been connected to a range of violent incidents and a spike in emergency room visits since they became popular several years ago. Last fall, the Drug Enforcement Administration banned three chemicals used in bath salts, and 38 states have enacted their own bans, but incidents continue.
Cardinal decided to apply for this internship when Guhathakurta spoke at her high school about "galaxy cannibalism." This is the process by which smaller galaxies get destroyed by, and incorporated into, larger galaxies. Individual stars in the galaxy don't get destroyed in this process. But galaxy cannibalism can disrupt the structure of the smaller galaxy, and can even cause individual stars to get "orphaned."
The summer will conclude with a final presentation scheduled for August 21. About 75 people are expected to show up. Students will present on a wide range of topics in 15 presentations. One of them will present her findings about galaxies that have "survived" the process of galaxy cannibalism. Another is studying the chemical properties of stars in the Milky Way.
This dissertation examines European writings about cannibalism in North America from 1492 until 1763, uncovering insights into the establishment and maintenance of imperial power. It contributes to existing scholarship about cannibalism, empire, gender history, and the history of sexuality. Imperial power depended upon the assertion of European superiority and the assumption of Indian inferiority, and the discourse of cannibalism played a key role in the establishment of these hierarchical determinations. Because imperial expansion always involved the conquering of bodies in addition to land and resources, it is imperative to acknowledge and scrutinize the way that conquered bodies were gendered. Cannibalism is an embodied act, and an investigation of the discourse of anthropophagy illuminates the development of early modern ideas about savagery, civilization, gender, and sexuality.
Situated at the crossroads of history and cultural studies, this dissertation employs discourse analysis in order to reveal new insights into historical documents and to re-center gender in the study of the discourse of cannibalism. This comparative project traces the discourse of cannibalism in the context of Caribbean exploration, the Spanish empire in Mexico, the French empire in Canada, and the English empire in Atlantic North America, in order to develop an understanding of the ways in which the discourse of cannibalism changed across empires, time-periods, and geographic locations. This project compensates for the lack of scholarly attention that has been afforded to the study of cannibalism in North America. Ultimately, it uncovers some of the ways in which the discourse of cannibalism reinforced, created, and shaped developing ideas about gender and empire.
The propensity for cannibalism varies considerably both within and between species. Currently we have little understanding of both the causes of this variation and its evolutionary consequences for other life-history traits. We examine how different levels of spatial structure affect the evolution of cannibalism and how cannibalism in turn drives the evolution of dispersal. Using pair approximations and simulations, we show that cannibalism can easily evolve in spatially structured populations as long as some dispersal exists. Furthermore, for a wide range of intermediate levels of spatial structure, we find the possibility of evolutionary branching leading to polymorphism in cannibalism. We also show that cannibalism itself can have important evolutionary consequences and select for increased dispersal rates, thus helping to determine the spatial structure of populations. The coevolution of cannibalism and dispersal results in the evolution of various alternative life-history strategies with different dispersal and cannibalism regimes. Which strategy evolves depends on the environmental conditions that determine initial cannibalism rates. Our results therefore suggest that differences in spatial structure could explain variation in the propensity for cannibalism and cannibalistic polyphenism. Furthermore, results emphasize that cannibalism can drive the evolution of other life-history traits and determine the spatial structure of natural populations. 041b061a72